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Historically , the Han attitude towards the minorities has undergone many changes . For several generations the Tang Dynasty tried to conquer Nanzhao , a mixed state of mainly Bai and Yi , and warred with the Tibetans . But when Kublai Khan finally subjugated and incorporated Yunnan into the Celestial Empire , he left their chiefs to rule in hiss name . This policy was continued by the Ming , who employed Naxis and others as their frontier armies . The Qing reserved and dispatched their own administrators . By and large , though , the Han ruler let the minorities along , except when
they threatened the peace of the plains . People like the Bai , Naxi and some of the Dai and Yi began assimilating Chinese culture . They adopted Confucian mores , copied Han architecture and observed Chinese festivals (in addition to their own ) .

Other minorities were too remote for interference . People like the Wa , Jinuo , Nu and Jingpo never interacted with the Han until after 1949 , when the new Communist government began extending its write to every border area . Reforms , often drastic , accompanied occupation . Societies f the plains and plateaus-Naxi , Bai , Dai , Zhung-were
turned upside down , with large estates broken up and the idle gentry put to work or worse . Policy towards the hill people proceeded more cautiously . The regime’ principal aim was to eliminate the slavery practised by the Wa , Jingpo ,and Yi . This they achieved by compensating ex-land downers and slave holders with political office in the new “ autonomous counties “ . It took a few years to subdue a fraction of recalcitrant Yi , but in the end slavery disappeared in Yunnan .
The next step was to integrate them into the modern state by establishing village schools and constructing a network of roads , some of them extraordinary feats of engineering . Then the government introduced the commune system , which did improve agricultural output in some places . But zealous officials sometimes forced mountain folks into such communes in valleys which the mountaineers found uncomfortable . Yet worse was to come .
During the Cultural Revolution minority cultures came under heavy attack . All along the communists had been discrediting shamans , monks , priests and other traditional roles . Now all traditional customs and beliefs were damned a superstition” and any manifestation of minority culture was castigated as “ little chauvinism “ . Leftists tried to turn minorities into Han-style communists and only the utter remoteness of some areas spared at least a portion of the minority population from the chaos .


Related Tour Routes 】
Tour Code Length Tour Program                
ECR0101 3-Day Tour Kunming  Eternal Spring City 
ECR0102  8-Day Tour  Kunming , ,Yunyang , Hehou, Vietman                        
ECR0103 7-Day Tour Kunming , Dali , Lijiang .
ECR0104  8-Day Tour Kunming , Ljiang , Dali , Baoshan , Manshi, Rui 
ECR0105  9-Day Tour Kunming , Dali , Lijiang, Deqen 
ECR0106 8-Day Tour Kunming , Xishuangbanna , Lijiang
ECR0107 17-Days Tour Yunnan-Tibet Land Adventure 
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ECR0115 08-Day Tour Kunming ,Dali Banna, Medical Investigation
ECR0116 09-Day Kunming ,Dali ,Baoshan , Tengchong , Manshi , Ruili
ECR0120 10-Day China-Shangri-La ,Kunming,Dali,Lijiang,Zhongdian
ECR0302 18-Day Bicycle Tour to Dali, Lijiang


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